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Letters and Sounds underpins the teaching of phonics at Ivy Bank. Daily, discrete teaching of phonics begins in EYFS and continues through to the end of KS1 using high quality Bug Club and Espressso resources, to which every child has access through their personal log in. The Letters and Sounds programme organises the teaching of Phonics into six Phases with Phases 1 to 3 being covered through EYFS, and Phases 4 to 6 taught throughout KS1.Towards the end of Year 1, every child undergoes the Phonic Screening test, which is a national assessment initiated by the Government. Every Autumn, EYFS and KS1 staff host an introduction to Phonics during the annual Reading meeting.


Recommended Resources

Use www.home.espresso.co.uk to find phonics resources for your child. UN=student6994  PW=flyer15

 The link below will take you straight to the phonics section.


Learn the letters of the alphabet






Glossary for Phonics


Alternative spelling - a phoneme can have several ways of being written down ai, ay, a-e.

Blending - to draw individual sounds together to make a word.

Digraph - one sound represented by two letters ‘sh’ fish.

Graph - one sound represented by one letter ‘c’ cat.

Grapheme - the written representation of sounds (graph, digraph, trigraph or quadgraph).

Phoneme - the speech sound of the letter(s).

Quadgraph - one sound represented by four letters ‘eigh’ eight.

Segmenting - to split up a word into its individual phonemes in order to spell it - c-a-t

Split Digraph - a vowel sound represented by two letters, separated by a consonant:

‘a-e’ tape , ‘e-e’ Pete, ‘ i-e’ kite, ‘o-e’ note, ‘u-e’ cube or June

Syllable - a beat in a word that contains a vowel ‘win/dow’

Trigraph - one sound represented by three letters ‘igh’ light

Click on the link below to hear how to correctly pronounce each of the 44 phonemes taught:


Phonic Phases

Phase 1

Young children learn to discriminate between different sounds in the world around them eg. a dog barking, a telephone ringing.

Phase 2

the children are introduced to letters (graphemes) and corresponding sounds (phonemes) for the first time. Through Phase 2, the children are taught how to segment and blend different sounds to support earkly reading and writing skills eg c-a-t -cat. Below are the sounds taught in Phase 2.

Phase 3

The sound mat below identifies the different graphemes and corresponding graphemes taught in Phase 3. In this phase digraphs and trigraphs (groups of letters making one sound) are introduced eg. c-ar -car.

Phase 4

No new graphemes and phonemes are introduced.Instead, the children have the opportunity to further manipulate those already taught. Polysyllabic words (words containing more than one syllable) are explored as the children learn how to segment and blend an increasing number of sounds together.

Phase 5

New graphemes are introduced, some of which represent phonemes already taught. For example, in Phase 3 'ai' (as in 'rain') is taught, whilst in Phase 5, the children are introduced to 'ay' (as in 'day') as variations in the English language.

Phase 6 

The main aim of this Phase is for children to become more fluent readers and more accurate spellers.


Ivy Bank Primary School

Valley Road Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 8PB

Mrs Sarah Gill | Headteacher

01625 448014